Restricted speech material for cleft speech assessment - word list for cross-linguistic comparisons.
For cross-linguistic comparisons of speech outcome, two requirements additional to the language specific requirements should be met by the test sounds intended for comparison. They should be of similar phonetic content and occur in similar phonetic context.
Creating a restricted word list
A word list for use in cross-linguistic studies of outcome should be compiled with the above criteria in mind. One way of doing this is to compare the single word lists currently used by the languages below and identify words in the actual language, which include the relevant ‘test’ sounds and meet the following criteria:
- include the plosives in initial stressed position and three different words
- include /s/ in final position in 3 words and and 3 in initial position
- include /n/in initial stressed position and three different words
- avoid nasal consonants and other plosives in the same word
- include high vowels in 1/3 of the words (the first nine words)
- put the test consonants and words in random order
The resulting word list is recommended to include around 30-35 single words.
For cross-linguistic comparisons of speech outcome, two additional requirements (to the language specific requirements) should be met by the test sounds intended for comparison. They should:
- be of similar phonetic content
- occur in similar phonetic context
A word list for use in cross-linguistic studies should be compiled with the above criteria in mind. One way of doing this is to compare the single word lists currently used by each language and identify words which include the chosen ‘test’ sounds and that meet these criteria.
The PCC is measured by the total number of test consonants assessed as correct diveded by the total number elicited. The PCC measure of percentage consonants correct was originally developed by Shriberg and Kwiatkowski (1982). Single-word material may be used provided that results are not to be related to severity of involvement (Shriberg et al., 1997). Calculating the percentage of consonants correct in single word samples has been used to assess articulation skills in children born with cleft palate (e.g. Klintö et al., 2014; Willadsen et al., 2016).